Seismic interpretation and mapping

Seismic interpretation is carried out using the latest software tools and advanced attribute sets that allow us to interpret even large surveys with high quality and in a short time. We use technologies such as special filtering, stratigraphic deconvolution, volume blending, volume rendering, optical summation, automatic tracking, spectral decomposition, etc. The work uses all available well data (logs, seismic logs, VSP) and, where appropriate, uses interval velocities for time-depth conversion. Seismic interpretation is strongly interconnected with other disciplines, such as sequence stratigraphy, regional tectonic analysis, and seismic inversion.

Petrophysics and rock physics

Our specialists have developed various technological chains, based on a variety of tools, to assess reservoir properties using both a modern GIS complex and a standard one (including digitization and editing of GIS curves). Interpretation of well logging data includes the results of core analysis, well testing and geological testing taking into account the geological context. The resulting data are calibrated curves of deterministic or probabilistic lithology, porosity and saturation, from which additional parameters such as permeability can be derived. We also offer special solutions: electrofacial classification, image binarization, etc.

Geological/Hydrodynamic Modeling

We offer a full cycle of geological and reservoir modeling based on well, seismic and production data, in accordance with the required level of detail. In addition to the standard modeling approach, our models can include the results of special data interpretation (for example, borehole electrofacies classification and image binarization) and 3D seismic inversion interpretation (probability cube of lithology, porosity, fluid saturation). More reliable results can be obtained by interpolating well data in 3D using seismic properties as trends with optimal specific gravity. Geological and dynamic modeling results are commonly used in our asset assessment projects (reserve development project, reserve assessment and certification) and fault conductivity assessment projects.

Sequence stratigraphy, paleoreconstruction

A deep understanding of structural development and depositional history is essential to assessing assets and their hydrocarbon potential. Depending on the scope of work, we analyze well data, seismic data (including lithological cubes obtained from inversion results) and regional data in terms of sequence stratigraphy, thickness maps, facies distribution, regional and local tectonic structure, activation (reactivation) time violations and implement the results into the geological model.
The result is usually a diagram that combines major tectonic events, stratigraphic sequences and hydrocarbon systems. This circuit is part of our many complex process chains.

AVO analysis and seismic inversion

Pre-stack seismic interpretation is a key element in many of our process chains. It begins with additional processing and linking of seismic data to wells and preliminary AVO analysis. To build a low-frequency model, we have developed a special approach where, along with well data, seismic velocities and deep trends in elastic properties are used. To invert 2D data, we also build an initial homogeneous model in 3D. For inversion, either angular sums or seismograms with kinematic correction are used. The resulting data are the acoustic and shear (elastic) impedances, the resulting Vp/Vs ratio, and, if available, the density. In many cases, conversion to LambdaRho-MuRho space results in better separation into target lithotypes.
For interpretation, along with cross-density methods, we use probabilistic classification of lithology and pore fluids based on stochastic models of elastic properties of rocks and taking into account deep compaction trends. As a result, we obtain probabilistic cubes of lithotypes (clay, water-saturated reservoir, hydrocarbon-saturated reservoir, etc.), which can be used to assess prospectivity, sequence stratigraphy, or as an additional trend in geological modeling.

Regional studies, basin and tectonic modeling

At the request of clients, Clarenco has successfully compiled several regional reviews for onshore and offshore pools in the CIS countries, Europe and West Africa. The results collected in ArcGIS projects cover the main elements of hydrocarbon systems and are provided as input data for basin modeling, asset assessment and generally for seismic interpretation projects.
As part of our asset assessment pipeline, we typically carry out 1D basin modeling to verify the maturity and timing of fluid displacement. The company has also completed a number of 2D and 3D basin modeling projects of various scales. These included analysis of the history of subsidence, warming and maturity of the basin; determining the time of the beginning of fluid displacement, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons to assess the risk associated with the presence of saturation, phase composition and volume of the deposit; as well as fluid properties, shale and coal gas properties, hot zones and pressure forecasts.
Often these studies are combined with 2D and 3D tectonic modeling of major faults and parts of the basin. It is important to note that the integration of tectonic modeling with our fault conductivity prediction provides the necessary input data for basin modeling in determining hydrocarbon migration paths.

Reservoir characteristics

Comprehensive reservoir study at the intersection of geology, seismic and development is our core specialization. Our highly integrated approach using advanced technologies, combining petrophysics, rock physics, seismic interpretation and inversion, tectonic and facies assessment, probabilistic prediction of lithology and fluid saturation, static and dynamic modeling, helps our customers localize hydrocarbon volumes, understand possible risks and develop optimal strategies exploration and production.

Fault Seal analysis and fracturing delineation

In areas with an active tectonic past, the formation of faults can lead to the formation of complex structural types of hydrocarbon traps; in addition, faults can create either pathways for migration or obstacles to the migration of hydrocarbons.
In order for our clients to better understand the internal structure of their reservoir, we have developed a process chain for estimating fault conductivity parameters from seismic data calibrated to available well data. The basis of this approach is the creation of a 3D lithofacies model from well and seismic data, based on the results of simultaneous inversion, from which lithological contact estimation (“juxtaposition”) and fault surface shaling ratio (“SGR”) parameters can be extracted for each fault of interest.
For our comprehensive fracturing prediction, we use a fractal approach where we combine tectonic setting and paleostress analysis, post-stack specific seismic attributes, core and well data, well testing and production data. The practical implementation of the resulting prestack seismic attributes is under development.
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